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Im Zentrum unseres Handelns steht eine klinische, patientenorientierte Forschung, die Ergebnisse aus der Grundlagenforschung in klinisch wertvolle Schemata adaptiert und auf Effektivität im realen klinischen Alltag testet.

[LenSx® femto-LASIK, FEMTO LDV Z4® femto-LASIK, and PRK : Comparison of refractive results and an analysis of complications].


The aim of this study is to evaluate three refractive procedures: LenSx® (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) femto-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), FEMTO LDV Z4® (Ziemer, Port, Switzerland) femto-LASIK, and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in terms of refractive outcome, perioperative complications, pain, and patient satisfaction.


Data of 168 eyes (myopic n = 84) were included in this retrospective study. Of these, 54 eyes (n = 27, 33.85 ± 7.64 years) were treated with LenSx® femto-LASIK, 60 eyes (n = 30, 35.03 ± 7.46 years) with FEMTO LDV Z4® femto-LASIK, and 54 eyes (n = 27, 33.24 ± 8.52 years) with PRK. Photoablation was induced by a MEL80 Excimerlaser (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). The corrected (Vsc) and uncorrected (Vcc) distance subjective visual acuity, corneal topography (Pentacam® HR; Wetzlar, Germany), and objective astigmatism (ARK-760A Refractometer ; Nidek, Fremont, CA, USA) were measured preoperatively, and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Subjective pain (verbal rating scale) and patient satisfaction were also recorded.


Subjective Vsc showed significantly better results in both femto-LASIK cohorts compared to PRK (p < 0.05) 1 day and 1 week postoperatively. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of spherical equivalent and astigmatism 3 months postoperatively. The LenSx® femto-LASIK caused flap complications. The highest patient satisfaction results were shown in the LDV Z4® group, followed by the LenSx® and PRK cohorts (p = 0.072). LDV Z4® femto-LASIK showed the lowest pain score 1 day postoperatively (p < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between target refraction and preoperative corneal thickness and astigmatism.


Femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK is an effective procedure enabling rapid rehabilitation of visual acuity with low postoperative pain compared to PRK. There is no difference between the three techniques regarding refractive outcome after 3 months follow-up. LDV Z4® femto-LASIK can be recommended, if available, due to its low intraoperative complication rate and higher patient satisfaction compared to LenSx® femto-LASIK.

[Multifocal Electroretinography in Patients with Poppers Maculopathy].

Background Maculopathy is a potential side effect of amyl nitrite or "poppers" abuse. It is characterized by a sudden, painless decrease in visual acuity. While the funduscopic changes are subtle, optical coherence tomography shows alterations of the outer retinal layers in the fovea. However, the extent of retinal dysfunction remains poorly understood. Materials/Methods We compared the multifocal electroretinogram of 6 patients with poppers maculopathy to that of a control group consisting of 6 healthy subjects. Response densities and implicit times of N1 and P1 were analyzed. Results Response densities and implicit times of both N1 and P1 were lower in the patients with poppers maculopathy than in the control group, particularly in ring 1 and rings 4 and 5. The only statistically significant finding, however, was a reduced N1 response density of one hexagon in the patient group. No significant differences were found considering the sum response or the averaged rings 1 to 5. Conclusion Compared to a healthy control group, the multifocal electroretinogram of patients with poppers maculopathy shows no relevant impairment. This contrasts the marked effect of the disease on visual acuity. In clinical practice, poppers maculopathy cannot be diagnosed by multifocal electroretinography.

[Structural and morphological changes in the eyes of arterial hypertensive patients with and without anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis].


To investigate the additive systemic inflammatory process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in arterial hypertension patients, structural and morphological changes of the retina and optic nerve head were assessed by modern topographic technologies. Similarities of underlying vascular mechanisms between RA and arterial hypertension are interesting and have not been researched in depth. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes of RA and arterial hypertension with the optic coherence topography (OCT) and Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT III), to validate RA changes in comparison to arterial hypertension only patients and, finally, if these methods are useful to detect the chronic inflammatory influence of the RA on the eye.


In this prospective study design, data of 18 patients with RA and arterial hypertension (55.3 ± 4.31 years old), positive for antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides, 21 patients with arterial hypertension (54.2 ± 4.18 years old) and 19 healthy subjects (53.1 ± 3.25 years old) were included. Intensive ophthalmologic and internistic screening tests were carried out in all subjects. All participants were investigated for the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macula thickness with the OCT (Carl Zeiss AG Germany) and for stereometric parameters of the optic nerve head with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III (Heidelberg Engineering Germany). The pachymetry was conducted by the Orbscan II system (Bausch & Lomb). Statistical data were assessed by SPSS, v20.0.


No significant differences were found in visual function, diastolic and systolic blood pressure. RNFL, and macular thickness (Stratus-OCT) were almost consistent between the groups and even the main stereometric parameters measured with HRT III showed no significant differences.


Contrary to our study hypothesis no structural and morphological changes could be detected in patients with arterial hypertension without RA compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, no RA-specific effects could be shown in comparison with the hypertension group. Thus, the used examination techniques are not suitable to prove the systemic inflammatory influence of RA on the eye.

Can we improve the efficacy of modern cataract surgery by using different tip designs? A comparison of balanced and tapered tip in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and manual phacoemulsification.


Different tip designs in modern cataract surgery have not been studied between the reported systems.


Aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of two tip designs, Intrepid® balanced tip (BT) and Kelman tapered tip (TT), in femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and the microcoaxial torsional phacoemulsification.


Prospective randomized unmasked cohort outcome study (hospital setting).


Threehundert-forty-three eyes of 343 patientes underwent cataract surgery.


Data of n = 196 FLACS and n = 147 manual phacoemulsification were analysed. Intrepid® balanced tip and Kelman tapered tip, Alcon, USA, were tested in FLACS (LenSx Alcon, USA) und manual phaco (Alcon Centurion System, USA). Four study cohorts were formed; FLACS BT (n = 90, 70.2 years), FLACS TT (n = 106, 68.1years), Manual BT (n = 70, 71.3 years), Manual TT (n = 77, 71.8 years). The nuclei were graded in Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) II,III and IV.


Cumulative dissipated energy (CDE%s), balanced salt solution volume (BSSml), total longitudinal energy (%s) and torsional amplitude (%s).


Lower CDE values were seen in FLACS compared to manual phacoemulsification (CDE %s median FLACS BT 3.28, FLACS TT 4.07, Manual BT 5.57, Manual TT 6.27). There was a significant difference between CDE FLACS BT and FLACS TT (p = 0.038), and between FLACS BT and Manual TT (p = 0.001).


The right choice of tip designs in advanced phacoemulsification systems is a key factor in increasing efficacy in cataract surgery. The balanced tip showed a considerable energy-saving advantage in FLACS and manual phacoemulsification compared to the tapered tip.

Impact of the Femtosecond Laser in Line with the Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS) on the Anterior Chamber Characteristics in Comparison to the Manual Phacoemulsification.


To assess the alterations of the anterior chamber conditions including laser flare photometry after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) compared to the manual phacoemulsification.


Data of n=70 FLACS (mean age 67.2 ± 8.9 years) and n=40 manual phacoemulsification (mean age 69.5 ± 9.6 years) were analyzed. The procedures were performed by LenSx Alcon, USA, and Alcon Infiniti Vision System, USA. The following parameters were recorded: laser flare photometry (Kowa FM 700, Japan), anterior chamber (AC) depth, AC volume, AC angle (Pentacam, Oculus Inc., Germany), lens density, pupil diameter, endothelial cell count and pachymetry. The analysis was performed preoperatively, immediately after femtosecond laser procedure and one day postoperatively.


Between FLACS and the phaco control group, there was a significant difference in the AC depth (p=0.023, 3.77 mm vs. 4.05 mm) one day postoperatively. The AC angle (p=0.016) showed a significant difference immediately after the femto laser treatment. The central and thinnest pachymetry and endothelial cell count did not show a significant difference between the two study cohorts (p=0.165, p=0.291, p=0.979). The phaco cohort (n=40) demonstrated a non-statistically significant difference in the flare photometry of 15.80 photons/ms one postoperative day compared to the FLACS group 26.62 photons/ms (p=0.322).


In this study population, no evidence for an additive damage caused by the use of the femtosecond laser was demonstrated. Furthermore, no increase in the central and thinnest corneal thickness and no increased endothelial cell loss was demonstrated by the laser energy.

Correlation between anterior chamber characteristics and laser flare photometry immediately after femtosecond laser treatment before phacoemulsification.

PurposeTo assess the anterior chamber (AC) characteristics and its correlation to laser flare photometry immediately after femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy and photodisruption.Patients and methodsThe study included 97 cataract eyes (n=97, mean age 68.6 years) undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Three cohorts were analysed relating to the flare photometry directly post femtosecond laser treatment (flare <100 n=28, 69.6±7 years; flare 100-249 n=47, 67.7±8 years; flare >249 photon counts per ms cohort n=22, 68.5±10 years). Flare photometry (KOWA FM-700), corneal topography (Oculus Pentacam, Germany: AC depth, volume, angle, pachymetry), axial length, pupil diameter, and endothelial cells were assessed before FLACS, immediately after femtosecond laser treatment and 1 day postoperative (LenSx Alcon, USA). Statistical data were analysed by SPSS v19.0, Inc.ResultsThe AC depth, AC volume, AC angle, central and thinnest corneal thickness showed a significant difference between flare <100 vs flare 100-249 10 min post femtosecond laser procedure (P=0.002, P=0.023, P=0.007, P=0.003, P=0.011, respectively). The AC depth, AC volume, and AC angle were significantly larger (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.003, respectively) in the flare <100 vs flare >249 cohort 10 min post femtosecond laser treatment.ConclusionsA flat AC, low AC volume, and a narrow AC angle were parameters associated with higher intraocular inflammation. These criteria could be used for patient selection in FLACS to reduce postoperative intraocular inflammation.

Topical Curcumin Nanocarriers are Neuroprotective in Eye Disease.

Curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5dione) is a polyphenol extracted from turmeric that has long been advocated for the treatment of a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. Despite this promise, the clinical use of curcumin has been limited by the poor solubility and low bioavailability of this molecule. In this article, we describe a novel nanocarrier formulation comprising Pluronic-F127 stabilised D-α-Tocopherol polyethene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles, which were used to successfully solubilize high concentrations (4.3 mg/mL) of curcumin. Characterisation with x-ray diffraction and in vitro release assays localise curcumin to the nanocarrier interior, with each particle measuring <20 nm diameter. Curcumin-loaded nanocarriers (CN) were found to significantly protect against cobalt chloride induced hypoxia and glutamate induced toxicity in vitro, with CN treatment significantly increasing R28 cell viability. Using established glaucoma-related in vivo models of ocular hypertension (OHT) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT), topical application of CN twice-daily for three weeks significantly reduced retinal ganglion cell loss compared to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that our novel topical CN formulation has potential as an effective neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma and other eye diseases with neuronal pathology.

Topical Coenzyme Q10 demonstrates mitochondrial-mediated neuroprotection in a rodent model of ocular hypertension.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant with known neuroprotective activity. Its ocular effects when co-solubilised with α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) were evaluated. In vitro studies confirmed that CoQ10 was significantly protective in different retinal ganglion cell (RGC) models. In vivo studies in Adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats with unilateral surgically-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) treated with either CoQ10/TPGS micelles or TPGS vehicle twice daily for three weeks were performed, following which retinal cell health was assessed in vivo using DARC (Detection of Apoptotic Retinal Cells) and post-mortem with Brn3a histological assessment on whole retinal mounts. CoQ10/TPGS showed a significant neuroprotective effect compared to control with DARC (p<0.05) and Brn3 (p<0.01). Topical CoQ10 appears an effective therapy preventing RGC apoptosis and loss in glaucoma-related models.

Glaucoma: the retina and beyond.

Over 60 million people worldwide are diagnosed with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is estimated to be responsible for 8.4 million cases of irreversible blindness globally. Glaucoma is associated with characteristic damage to the optic nerve and patterns of visual field loss which principally involves the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At present, intraocular pressure (IOP) presents the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, although RGC and vision loss can continue in patients despite well-controlled IOP. This, coupled with the present inability to diagnose glaucoma until relatively late in the disease process, has led to intense investigations towards the development of novel techniques for the early diagnosis of disease. This review outlines our current understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying RGC and axonal loss in glaucoma. Similarities between glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are drawn before an overview of recent developments in techniques for monitoring RGC health is provided, including recent progress towards the development of RGC specific contrast agents. The review concludes by discussing techniques to assess glaucomatous changes in the brain using MRI and the clinical relevance of glaucomatous-associated changes in the visual centres of the brain.

Three-year results of ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome): Berlin study group.


To assess the long-term outcome of Trabectome surgery in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEX): 3-year results.


Trabectome surgery (NeoMedix, Tustin, CA, USA) was performed in 268 POAG patients (women 57.46%, men 42.54%, age 72.35 ± 9.63 years) and 98 PEX glaucoma patients (women 58.16%, men 41.84%, age 73.42 ± 8.54 years), and uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP). Parameters were examined preoperatively, 1 day, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post surgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using Criteria A (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg or ≥20% reduction from preoperative IOP), Criteria B (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg or ≥20% IOP reduction), Criteria C (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, with or without medication) and D (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with or without medication). Complete success was defined as IOP ≤ 21 mmHg (Criteria E) and IOP ≤ 18 mmHg without medication (Criteria F).


IOP was reduced from 19.10 ± 4.11 mmHg to 14.27 ± 2.93 mmHg (p < 0.001) and glaucoma medication was decreased from 2.40±0.92 to 1.77±1.00 (p < 0.001) in POAG after 36 months. In PEX, IOP decreased from 22.49±9.40 mmHg to 14.57±5.05 mmHg after 36 months (p < 0.001). Medications dropped from 2.31±1.02 to 1.75±0.91 (p = 0.006). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a success rate of 80.5% for POAG and 80.8% for PEX using criteria A (p = 0.933) and 62.4% for POAG and 73.7% for PEX using criteria B (p = 0.147) at 36 months postoperatively. Complete success showed a low survival rate (criteria E-13.5% in POAG and 7.9% in PEX, p = 0.070 and criteria F-12.8% in POAG and 5.9% in PEX, p = 0.083).


Trabectome is a safe method to lower IOP in patients with POAG and PEX glaucoma in the long-term period. It is beneficial to inform patients prior to surgery about adjuvant glaucoma medication after the surgery.

Modified goniotomy as an alternative to trabectome in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma: 1 year results.


To assess the outcome of modified goniotomy and trabeculotomy ab interno (Trabectome) surgery in adult primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma.


Retrospective cohort outcome study.


Two hundred and thirty-six eyes of 236 patients.


This cohort outcome study included 68 POAG (mean age: 65.7 ± 16.0 years) and 22 PEX glaucoma patients (mean age: 78.3 ± 7.9 years) in the modified goniotomy cohort and 119 POAG (mean age: 73.9 ± 9.6 years) and 27 PEX glaucoma patients (mean age: 75.2 ± 8.0 years) in the Trabectome cohort. Modified goniotomy is defined as combined ab interno cyclodialysis and goniotomy. The patients were followed up for 12 months, and we analysed the data using SPSS v19.0.


In POAG, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly reduced by 4.6 mm Hg in the Trabectome cohort (p < 0.001) and by 5.8 mm Hg (p < 0.001) in the goniotomy group at 1-year follow-up. In PEX glaucoma, the mean IOP was reduced by 9.7 mm Hg (p = 0.002) in the Trabectome surgery and by 6.7 mm Hg (p = 0.004) in the goniotomy cohort 1 year later. Comparing both surgery techniques in POAG, no significant correlation was found in terms of IOP at any of the follow-up visits (IOP at 1 year, p = 0.553). In PEX glaucoma, the IOP, visual acuity, and number of glaucoma medications did not differ significantly between the 2 surgery techniques 1 year later (IOP: p = 0.300; VA: p = 0.391; therapy: p = 0.908).


Modified goniotomy and Trabectome surgery are reliable and effective tools for the management of moderate POAG and PEX glaucoma. There was no significant difference in IOP between the 2 procedures over a follow-up period of 1 year.

Is there a change in the quality of life comparing the micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) and the filtration technique trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients?


This study was conducted to assess the impact on the Quality of Life (QOL) of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS: iStent, Trabectome) and a penetrating technique such as Trabeculectomy (TE).


This study evaluated 88 eyes of 88 open angle glaucoma patients undergoing glaucoma surgery: 43 (mean age 72.8 ± 8.8y, female 59.5 %, male 40.5 %) Trabectome (NeoMedix, Inc., Tustin, CA, USA), 20 (mean age 68.6 ± 16.4y, female 60 %, male 40 %) iStent (Glaucos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), and 25 TE patients (mean age 74.2 ± 9.1y female 58.3 %, male 41.7 %). The National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25) survey was used to assess the QOL at 6 months post surgery. The following 12 QOL parameters were evaluated: general health, ocular pain, general vision, near and distance activities, mental health, social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, driving, color vision, and peripheral vision. Intraocular pressure (IOP), number of topical medications, and visual acuity (VA) were examined preoperatively, 1 day, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months post surgery. Statistical data were calculated using SPSS (v20.0, SPSS, Inc.).


There was no significant difference between TE and MIGS in the quality of life 6 months postoperatively. IOP was significantly lower in TE compared to MIGS at 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.046 and p = 0.046). Number of medications was significantly decreased in TE compared to MIGS (p < 0.001). A significant difference in VA between TE and MIGS could be assessed at day 1 post-op (p = 0.011).


In this study cohort, the QOL can be maintained by all three surgical techniques. Patients, however, need lower numbers of topical medication in TE, which would impact QOL even though it is not included in the NEI-VFQ-25. The decision of the most appropriate surgical technique should be made by including single QOL categories, IOP and glaucoma medication outcome.

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